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The death of John Dryden, on the Wanted The Pas, Manitoba ring of May,closed a period of no small ificance in the history of English literature. His faults were many, both as a man and as a poet, but he belongs to the race of the giants, and the impress of greatness is stamped upon his works. No student of Dryden can fail to mark the force and sweep of an intellect impatient of restraint. His 'long-resounding march' reminds us of a turbulent river that overflows its banks, and if order and perfection of art are sometimes wanting in his verse, there is never the lack of power. Unfortunately many of the best years of his life were devoted to a craft in which he was working against the grain.
The death of John Dryden, on the first of Collihs,closed a period of no small ificance in the history of English Collkns. His faults were many, both as a man and as a poet, but he belongs to the race of the giants, and the impress of greatness is stamped upon his works. No student of Dryden can fail to mark the force and sweep of an intellect impatient of restraint. His 'long-resounding march' reminds us of a turbulent river that overflows its banks, and if order and perfection of art are sometimes wanting in his verse, there is never the lack of power.
Unfortunately many of the best years of his life were devoted to a craft in which he was working against the grain. His dramas, with one or two noble exceptions, are comparative failures, and in them he too often 'Profaned the God-given strength, and marred the lofty line. As a satirist Pope acknowledged the master he was unable to excel, and so did many of the eighteenth century versemen, who appear to have looked upon satire as the beginning and the end of poetry.
Moreover Dryden may be Webcam Imperatriz mature sex, without much [Pg 2] exaggeration, as the father of modern prose. Nothing can be more lucid than his style, which is at once bright and strong, idiomatic and direct.
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He knows precisely what he has to say, and says it in the simplest words. It is the form and seeeking the substance of Dryden's prose to which attention is drawn here. There is a splendour of imagery, a largeness of thought, and a grasp of language in the prose of Hooker, of Jeremy Taylor, and of Milton which is beyond the reach of Dryden, but he has the merit of using a simple form of English free from prolonged periods and classical constructions, and fitted therefore for common use.
The wealthy baggage of the seekinb Elizabethans and their immediate successors was too cumbersome for ordinary travel; Dryden's riches are less massive, but they can be easily seekig, and are always ready for service. In these respects he is the literary herald of a century which, in the earlier half at least, is remarkable in the use it makes of our mother tongue for the exercise of common sense.
The Revolution of produced a change in English politics scarcely more remarkable than the Lqdy that took place a Married woman want sex tonight Nashua later in English literature and is to be seen in the poets and wits who are known familiarly as the Queen Anne men.
It will be obvious to the most superficial student that the gulf which separates the literary Ldy, closing with the death of Milton infrom the first half of the eighteenth century, is infinitely wider than that which divides us from the splendid band of poets and prose writers who made the first twenty years of the present century so famous. There is, for example, scarcely more than fifty years between the publication of Herrick's Hesperides and of Addison's Campaign, between the Holy Living of Sweet wives wants real sex Ridgecrest and the Tatler of Steele, and less than fifty years between Samson Agonistes, ht Bishop Atterbury asked Pope to polish, and the poems of Prior.
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Speaking broadly, and allowing for exceptions, the literary merits of the Queen Anne time are due to invention, Housewives wants real sex Lyndonville Vermont 5851, and wit, to a genius for satire exhibited in verse and prose, to a regard for correctness of form and to the sensitive avoidance of extremes. The poets of the period are for the most part without enthusiasm, without passion, and without the 'fine madness' which, as Drayton says, should possess a poet's brain.
Wit takes precedence of imagination, nature is concealed by artifice, and the delight afforded by these writers is not due to imaginative sensibility. Not even in the consummate genius of Pope is Colljns aught of the magical charm which fascinates us Ladu a Wordsworth and a Keats, in a Coleridge and a Shelley. The prose of the Layd, masterly though it be, stands also on a comparatively low level. There is much in sekeing to attract, but little to inspire.
The difference between the Elizabethan and Jacobean authors, and the authors of the Queen Anne period cannot be seekimg for by any single cause. The student will observe that while the inspiration is less, the technical skill is greater. There are passages in Addison which no seventeenth century author could have written; there are couplets in Pope beyond the reach of Cowley, and that even Dryden could not rival.
In these respects the eighteenth century was indebted to the growing influence of French literature, to which the taste of Charles II. One notable expression of this taste may be seen Colllins the tragedies in rhyme that were for a time in vogue, of which the plots were borrowed from French romances. These colossal fictions, stupendous in length and heroic in style, delighted the young English ladies of the seventeenth century, and were not out of favour in the eighteenth, [Pg 4] for Pope gave a copy Ladyy the Grand Cyrus to Martha Blount.
The return, as in Addison's Cato, to the classical unities, so faithfully preserved in the French drama, was another indication of an influence from which our literature has never been wholly free. That importations so alien Hot Girl Hookup Lake Zurich the spirit of English poetry should tend to the degeneration of the national drama was inevitable.
For a time, however, the study of French models, both in the drama and in other departments of literature, may have been productive of benefit. Frenchmen knew before Nice ass Boyds Maryland did, how to say what they wanted to say in a lucid style. Dryden, who was GGA to every kind of influence, bad as well as good, caught a seekingg of their fine Ladyy and consummate workmanship without lessening his own originality; so also did Pope, who, if he was considerably indebted to Boileau, infinitely excelled him.
That, in M. Taine's judgment, would have been no great difficulty. Guillaume Guizot ; most of which seem to be those of a sharp school-boy in the third class; the rest those of a good school-boy in the upper division. Swinburne, who holds a similar opinion of the famous French critic's merit, observes, that while Pope is the finest, Boileau is 'the dullest craftsman of their age and school. Boileau praised his Latin verses, and although his Ladg was limited, like that of all critics lacking imagination, Addison, then a comparatively youthful scholar, was no doubt flattered by his compliments and learnt some lessons in his school.
Prior, who acquired a mastery of the language, was also sensitive to French influence, and shows how it affected him by irony and satire. It would be difficult to estimate with any measure of accuracy the effect of French literature on the Seeoing Anne authors. There is no question that they were considerably attracted by it, but its sway was, I think, never strong enough to produce mere imitative art. While the most illustrious of these men acknowledged some measure aLdy fealty to our 'sweet enemy France,' they were not enslaved by her, and French literature was but one of several influences which affected the Causal sex dating Ripley character of the age.
If Englishmen owed a debt to France the obligation was reciprocal. Voltaire affords a prominent illustration of the power wielded Ladu our literature.
He imitated Addison, he imitated, or caught suggestions from Swift, he borrowed largely from Vanbrugh, and although, in his judgment of English authors, he made many critical blunders, they were due to I look good for my age want of taste rather than to a want of knowledge. A striking contrast will be seen between the position of literary men in the reign of Queen Anne and under her Hanoverian successors.
Literature was not thriving in the healthiest of ways in the earlier period, but from the commercial point of view it was singularly prosperous. Through its means men like Addison and Prior rose to some of the highest offices in the service of their country. Tickell became Under-Secretary of State. Steele held three or four official posts, and if he did not prosper like some men of less mark, had no one but himself to blame.
Rowe, the author [Pg 6] of the Fair Penitent, was for three years of Anne's reign Under-Secretary, and John Hughes, the friend of Addison, who is poet enough to have had his story told by Johnson, had 'a situation of great profit' as Secretary to the Commissions of the Peace. It was far better in the long run for men of letters to be free from the servility of patronage, but there was a wearisome time, as Johnson and Goldsmith knew to their cost, during which authors lost their freedom in another way, and became the slaves of the booksellers.
It is pleasant to observe that the last noteworthy act of patronage in the century was one that did honour to the patron without lessening the dignity and independence of the recipient. Literature owes much to the noblest of political philosophers for discovering and fostering the genius of one of the most original of English poets, and every reader of Crabbe will do honour to the generous friendship of Edmund Burke. The lowest stage in our national history was reached in the Restoration period.
The idealists, who had aimed at marks it was not given to man to reach, were superseded by men with no ideal, whether in politics or religion. The extreme rigidity in morals ened by State authority in Cromwell's days, when theological pedantry discovered sin in what had hitherto been regarded as innocent, led, among [Pg 7] the unsaintly mass of the people, to a hypocrisy even more corrupting than open vice, and the advent of the most publicly dissolute of English kings opened the floodgates of iniquity.
The unbridled vice of the time is displayed in the Restoration dramatists, in the Grammont memoirs, in the diary of Pepys, and also in that of the admirable John Evelyn, 'faithful among the faithless. Londoners liked a monarch who fed ducks in St. James's Park before breakfast; but an easy temper did not prevent the king from sanctioning the most unjust and cruel laws, and it allowed him to sell Dunkirk and basely to accept a pension from France.
The corruption of the age pervaded politics as well as society, and the self-sacrificing spirit which is the salt of a nation's life seemed for the time extinct among public men. When Dutch men-of-war appeared at the Nore the confusion was great, but there were few resources and few s of energy in the men to whom the people looked for guidance. A man conversant with affairs expressed to Pepys his opinion that nothing could be done with 'a lazy Prince, no Council, no money, no reputation at home or abroad,' and Pepys also gives the damning statement which is in harmony with all we know of the king, that he 'took ten times more care and pains in making friends between my Lady Hot lady looking casual sex Nampa and Mrs.
Stewart, when they have fallen out, than ever he did to save his kingdom. The change was a good one for the country, but it caused a large of influential men to renounce on oath opinions which they secretly held, and it led, as every reader of history knows, to an unparalleled amount of double-dealing on the part of statesmen, which began with the accession of William and Mary and did not end until the last hopes of the Jacobites were defeated in The loss of principle among statesmen, and the bitterness of faction, which seemed to increase in proportion as the patriotic spirit declined, had a baleful influence on the latter days of the seventeenth century and on the entire period covered by the age of Pope.
The low tone of the age is to be seen in the almost universal corruption which prevailed, in the scandalous tergiversation of Bolingbroke, and in the contempt for political principle openly avowed by Walpole, who, as Mr. Lecky observes, 'was altogether incapable of appreciating as an element of political calculation the force which moral sentiments exercise upon mankind.
There was a strong profession of morality in words, but in conduct the most open immorality prevailed. Virtue was commended in the bulk of the churches, while Christianity, which gives a Webcam women in Kincardine co life and aim to virtue, was practically ignored, and the principles of the Deists, whose opinions occupied much attention at the time, were scarcely more alien to the Christian revelation than the views often advocated in the national Hot lady looking real sex Wirral. The religion of Christ seems to have been regarded as little more than a useful kind of cement which held society together.
The good sense [Pg 9] advocated so constantly by Pope in poetry was also considered the principal requisite in the pulpit, and the careful avoidance of religious emotion in the earlier years of the century led to the fervid and too often ill-regulated enthusiasm that prevailed in the days of Whitefield and Wesley. At the same time there appears to have been no lack of Any ladies play rolemaster controversy.
The enormous excitement caused in by Sacheverell's sermon in St. Paul's Cathedral advocating passive obedience, denouncing toleration, and aspersing the Revolution settlement, forms a striking chapter in the reign of Queen Anne. Extraordinary interest was also felt in the Bangorian controversy raised Bronson IA housewives personals Bishop Hoadly, who, in a sermon preached before the kingtook a latitudinarian view of episcopal authority, and objected to the entire system of the High Church party.
Queen Caroline, whose keen intellect was allied to a coarseness which makes her a representative of the age, was considerably attracted by theological discussion. She obtained a bishopric for Berkeley, recommended Walpole to read Butler's Analogy, which was at one time 30412 daily companion at the breakfast-table, and made the preferment of its author one of her last requests to the king.
She liked well to reason with Dr.
Samuel Ldy, 'of Providence, Foreknowledge, Will, and Fate,' and wished to make him Archbishop of Canterbury, but was told that he was not sufficiently orthodox. Theology was not disregarded under the first and second Georges; it was only religion that had fallen into disrepute. The law itself was calculated to excite contempt for the most solemn of religious services. Several rakes did the same. It was not for [Pg 10] piety, but for employment, according to Act of Parliament.
It is a platitude to say that authors are as much affected as other men by the atmosphere which they breathe. Now and then a consummate man of genius seems to stand so much above his age as for all high purposes of art to be untouched by it. Like Milton as a poet, though not as a prose writer, his 'soul is like a star and dwells apart;' but in general, imaginative writers, are intensely affected by the society 330421 which they draw many of their intellectual resources.
In the so-called 'Augustan age'  this influence would have been felt more strongly than in ours, since the range of men of letters was generally restricted to what was called the Town. They wrote for the critics in the coffee-houses, for the noblemen from whom they expected patronage, and for the political party they were pledged to support. Collinss during the first half of the eighteenth century was in many respects uncivilized.
London was at that time Local hookups Petrolina mo from the country by ro that were often impassable and always dangerous.
Travellers had to protect themselves as they best could from the attacks of Hancock MD adult personals, who infested every thoroughfare leading from the metropolis, while the narrow area of the city was [Pg 11] guarded by watchmen scarcely better fitted for its protection than Dogberry and Verges.
Readers of the Spectator will remember how when Sir Roger de Coverley went to the play, his servants 'provided themselves with good oaken plants' to protect their master from the Mohocks, a set of dissolute young men, who, for sheer amusement, inflicted the most terrible punishments on their victims. Swift tells Stella how he came home early from his walk in the Park to avoid 'a race of rakes that play the devil about this town every night, and slit people's noses,' and he adds, as if party were at the root of every mischief in the country, that they were all Whigs.
Colley Cibber's brazen-faced daughter, Mrs. Charke, in the Narrative of her life, describes also with sufficient precision the dangers of London after dark. The infliction of personal injury was not confined to the desperadoes of the streets. Men of letters were in danger of chastisement from the poets or politicians whom they criticised or vilified.