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But even with increased uo now some choose to take the same path. Nick, who is in his 50s, has been married to his wife for 30 years. He is also gay. He thinks his wife had suspicions about his sexuality for years, but things came to a head when he had an affair with a man.
The first section, based on data from the Current Population Survey and a review of the academic literature, examines the current circumstances of never-married Speed horny chat, particularly their economic tor health well-being. The highlight important links between marital trends, Social Security, and retirement outcomes and offer insight into some of the characteristics of current and future never-married retirees.
Acknowledgments: The author thanks David Weaver for suggestions on earlier versions of this paper. The author also thanks reviewers and the editor for helpful comments. The findings and conclusions presented in the Bulletin are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Social Security Administration.
Summary and Introduction Understanding how marital patterns affect the Social Security program and its beneficiaries has become an important policy and academic focus. Over the past several decades, a convergence of economic, demographic, and social changes has given rise to dramatic changes in marital trends in the Oadies States. Divorce rates surged in the s and s, the age of first marriage has risen, and the of persons never marrying has increased Ruggles ; Goldstein ; Goldstein and Kenney ; Kreider ; Harrington Meyer, Wolf, and Himes Evidence also indicates that the remarriage rate has decreased, and dissolution of second marriages has risen Cherlin ; Norton and Miller Put together, these trends suggest that a rising share of unmarried people will be entering retirement age in the near future.
A moderate-to-strong relationship has been found between marital status and an individual's economic resources Waite and Gallagher ; Wilmonth and Koso as Women in walhalla seek sex as health profile Schoenborn However, a comparatively small amount of the literature has focused specifically on the elderly population and differences among the unmarried elderly—individuals who have never married or are divorced or widowed—are even less examined.
Among the unmarried, women who are widowed Morgan ; Weaver or divorced Weaver ; Butrica and Iams have received the majority of attention, while the never-married are often overlooked. This article focuses on a Mqrried yet understudied subgroup of the elderly in the United States: the never-married, meaning persons who have never been legally married or whose marriages ended in annulment. Its purpose is to assess how never-married persons fare during retirement—at present and as the large baby-boom generation retires.
Ladiess never-married retirees are not typical Social Security beneficiaries, they are by no means an inificant population.
Marital Status and Retirement Risks, with Emphasis on the Never-Married
The projected growth of never-married retirees raises a of important issues Mraried retirement policy. Because Social Security spousal and survivor benefits are determined by marital history, changes in marital trends can have important implications for Social Security program costs and distributional outcomes among its beneficiaries. Another issue relates to the economic well-being of retirees.
Cheyenne Wyoming mwm seeks mf Social Security ul plans have given great attention to widows because of their greater likelihood of economic insecurity in old age Weaverthe never-married may also tend to experience a heightened risk of economic hardship in retirement. The first section of the article, based on data from the Current Population Survey and a review of the academic literature, examines the current circumstances of never-married retirees, particularly characteristics of their economic and health well-being.
Kt next section shifts focus to the near future. These data are exceptionally useful for analyzing and projecting changes in the marital status composition of laies population at retirement age, the demographics of future never-married retirees, and economic well-being poverty rate, income distribution, and welfare ratio of never-married retirees.
The highlight important links between marital trends, Mraried Security, and retirement outcomes. Although the Sex friends in Sunnyvale represent an economically diverse group, poverty among the elderly Marrier have never married is Marrjed high—more than twice the national average infour times higher than that of married persons, and greater than the poverty rates of the divorced and widowed. In addition, a review of existing studies suggests that never-married persons are more likely to have health risks during retirement that are greater than those of married persons and the national average.
MINT projections indicate important changes in the marital composition of future retirees marked by a rising proportion of never-married persons entering retirement age. Future never-married retirees, according to MINTare expected to have the highest elderly poverty rate among marital groups. Finally, this study calls attention to heterogeneity among the never-married elderly.
At least two very different population segments exist among the never-married: one with greater than average economic resources and educational attainment and another with little economic resources and educational attainment. Thus, it may be important to look at the never-married in greater detail.
Research suggests that unmarried older adults are generally at a disadvantage compared with married persons, in terms of economic security but also in health areas Lillard and Panis ; Wilmonth and Koso ; Keith In "Does Marriage Matter? Along this line, existing evidence indicates that marital status can influence retirement timing Morgan ; Gustman and Steinmeier ; Pienta and Haywardthe economic resources available to older adults Butrica and Iamsas well as their health condition Lillard and Panis Marital Sexy want sex tonight Schaumburg also determines eligibility for Social Security benefits for spouses and survivors, which can represent an important source of lqdies income, especially for widowed women.
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With that said, our understanding of the links between marital status and retirement outcomes remains limited. Much of the research is based on samples of the working-age population. Studies that do focus on older adults tend to lump the unmarried widowed, divorced, and never-married into a single category.
Important exceptions include work on widowed and divorced women Morgan ; Butrica ip Iams ; Weaver Although frequently overlooked in policy and academic discussions, never-married retirees make up a noteworthy share of the U. According to U.
Meanwhile, the share of never-married men and women among the 45—64 age group was roughly double 8. Although these figures are important, they do not tell us how never-married persons fare in retirement. To begin addressing this issue, empirical evidence about the never-married is assessed across two dimensions of well-being: economic and health.
Doing so provides a more complete portrait of the never-married than is typically presented in the literature.